Abduction – spread apart

Adduction – bring together

Boutonniere - joint assumes a flexed (bent) position

Bowstringing – pulling of the tendon away from the bone in the finger because of a disruption of the sheath which normally holds a tendon in place

Contracture – joint assumes a flexed (bent) position

Deviation – movement to the side or departure from a straight line in a sideways direction

DIP – distal interphalangeal joint; joint farthest away from the hand (closest to the nail)

Distal – away from the hand, farthest from the hand

Dorsal - back of the hand/finger

Edema – swelling

Extension mobilization – to move from a bent position to an extended position

Flexion – bending

Flexor tendon – tendon which bends the finger

Fusiform – spindle-shaped; wide in the middle and narrow at each end

Hyperextension – extension or straightening of a joint past the neutral (zero degrees) or straight position

Hypermobile – abnormal laxity of the joint in one or more directions

IP – interphalangeal joint of the thumb; joint farthest away from the base of the thumb (closest to the nail)

Lateral – side, sideways

Lateral deviation – movement to the side

Mallet finger – inability to actively straighten the DIP joint

MCP – metacarpal phalangeal joint of the finger or thumb; joint at the base of the finger (knuckle joint) or joint closest to the base of the thumb

MCP flexion – bending at the metacarpal phalangeal joint

Neutral position – a straight position or zero degrees

PIP – proximal interphalangeal joint; middle finger joint

Prehension – the act of grasping with the fingers

Proximal – toward the hand, closest to the hand

A1-A2 pulley – sheath that holds the flexor tendon close to the bone

Radial – “thumb” side of the finger

Range of motion – the range through which a joint can move from neutral (zero degrees) to a fully flexed position

Reducible – to lessen or correct; to restore to normal

Subluxation – partial dislocation of a joint; joint surfaces no longer in contact with each other causing abnormal joint motion

Swan neck – joint assumes a hyper-extended position

Tenosynovitis – inflammation of the tendon

“Tip-to-tip” prehension – using the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger or index and middle fingers to grasp

Ulnar – “little finger” side of the finger

Ulnar drift – deviation toward the ulnar side

Volar – palm side of the hand/finger

Volar crease – crease directly under the joint (palmer side)

Webspace – space between the fingers/thumb

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